RNase-mediated protein footprint sequencing reveals protein-binding sites throughout the human transcriptome

Ian M. Silverman, Fan Li, Anissa Alexander, Loyal Goff, Cole Trapnell, John L. Rinn, Brian D. Gregory.
Genome Biology 15:R3 (2014)


Although numerous approaches have been developed to map RNA-binding sites of individual RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), few methods exist that allow assessment of global RBP–RNA interactions. Here, we describe PIP-seq, a universal, high-throughput, ribonuclease-mediated protein footprint sequencing approach that reveals RNA-protein interaction sites throughout a transcriptome of interest. We apply PIP-seq to the HeLa transcriptome and compare binding sites found using different cross-linkers and ribonucleases. From this analysis, we identify numerous putative RBP-binding motifs, reveal novel insights into co-binding by RBPs, and uncover a significant enrichment for disease-associated polymorphisms within RBP interaction sites.